Membebasan Diri Dari Kelekatan Terhadap Materi


Cara hidup Sokrates menandaskan hal ini secara eksplisit. Dari cara hidupnya yang sederhana, meskipun sebenarnya ia termasuk golongan menengah dalam masyarakat Athena, kita bisa menemukan banyak nilai liberatif terhadap materi. Sokrates hanya mengenakan jubah yang sama baik pada musim dingin maupun musim panas, tanpa alas kaki dan selalu berpuasa. Ia tidak mau bersekongkol dengan para hakim yang ingin mengadili seorang bernama Leon dari Salamis untuk dijatuhi hukuman mati demi merampas harta kekayaannya. Sokrates juga tidak meminta bayaran atas pengajaran yang diberikannya sebagaimana ia katakan dalam Apologia,

“…And if you have heard anybody say that I profess to give instruction, and get money in that way, neither is that true; although to my mind it is very fine indeed if any one is able to instruct his fellow, as are Gorgias of Leontini, and Procidus of Ceos, and Hippias of Elis.”[1]          

(…Dan jika engkau telah mendengar seseorang mengatakan bahwa saya mengaku memberi pengajaran, dan memperoleh uang dengan cara itu, keduanya sama sekali tidak benar; walaupun menurut pendapatku sebenarnya sangat baik jikalau ada seseorang yang mampu mengajar sahabat-sahabatnya seperti Georgias dari Leontini, Procidus dari Ceos dan Hippias dari Elis.)

Dalam banyak kesempatan lain, ia selalu berbicara tentang hidup yang ugahari, bebas dari kelekatan dan keterikatan terhadap materi. Kelepasan terhadap materi membuat jiwa manusia mampu melihat nilai-nilai yang luhur, yang adikodrati. Sokrates melihat itu lebih jauh terutama berkaitan dengan apa yang menjadi hakekat manusia, apa yang menjadi tujuan hidupnya kelak.

[1] Lane Cooper, Plato on the Trial and Death of Socrates (Euthypiro, Apology, Crito and Phaedo), (Itacha:  Cornell University Press, 1974), p. 53.

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