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HERMENEUTIKA PAUL RICOEUR: Upaya Distansiasi Teks dan Pembaca-Sebuah Diskursus Reflektif-Kritis

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Bagaimana sebuah teks diberi penilaian tatkala teks itu menimbulkan kekisruhan? Dapatkah kita membuat sebuah justifikasi atas peristiwa tertentu yang disajikan teks jika teks tersebut mempunyai tujuan tertentu yang khas, unik dan tersembunyi? Atas teks yang demikian, apa yang hendak dikatakan jika terbukti ia hanya memperkeruh suasana? Apa itu kebenaran yang disajikan teks, jika ternyata ia tidak memberikan kontribusi yang menciptakan keadilan? Bagaimana menafsir teks yang demikian? Itu sederetan pertanyaan yang muncul dalam benak banyak orang terhadap sebuah buku yang dinilai kontroversial dan penuh muatan politis karangan Mayjen (Purn) Kivlan Zen, Msi yang berjudul “Konflik dan Integrasi TNI AD”.[1] Buku ini berisi beberapa peristiwa dan penilaian atasnya berdasarkan pengamatan dan pengalaman Kivlan Zen sebagai prajurit TNI AD.

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Kesan yang kuat tercipta tatkala saya membaca informasi tentang buku ini ialah diungkapkannya secara agak tuntas dan lugas carut marut wajah TNI akibat kebijakan perwira tinggi TNI di zaman Orde Baru berkuasa hingga bola api Reformasi digulirkan. Muara akhir dari buku ini berkesimpulan bahwa sejak L.B. Moerdani berkuasa di kursi singga sana militer hingga Wiranto konflik berdarah yang terus terjadi di Tanah Air juga disebabkan oleh pergulatan politis para perwira tinggi untuk merebut kekuasaan atau paling kurang mendapat jatah remah-remah kekuasaan. Bahkan kasus yang agak aktual seperti kerusuhan Mei 1998 dan pembentukkan Pam Swakarsa [Pasukan Pengaman Swakarsa] yang mengamankan Sidang Istimewa MPR/DPR pada Mei 1998 berada dalam koridor yang sama. Terlibatnya Wiranto dalam pelbagai kasus berdarah menimbulkan persoalan politis, khususnya berdampak langsung pada usahanya untuk menjadi presiden RI untuk masa jabatan lima tahun ke depan.[2] Ada sebuah pertanyaan yang tersembul keluar dari kenyataan ini: “Apa maksud Kivlan menulis sebuah buku yang justru menyudutkan Wiranto yang berada di tengah tekanan kelompok yang menolak calon presiden dari militer?”

Tentu terdapat banyak jawaban yang bisa diberikan, yang terlahir dari usaha hermeneutis ketika orang membuat suatu penafsiran atas teks tertentu. Tulisan ini mengedepankan hermeneutika Paul Ricoeur, seorang filsuf Prancis dan tidak bermaksud menjelaskan kasus yang diungkapkan di atas secara langsung. Ia hanya dipakai sebagai pengantar untuk memperlihatkan betapa penting sebuah penafsiran ketika kenyataan membutuhkan jawaban yang jelas dan tuntas. Tulisan ini dibagi dalam lima bagian: Pengantar, Siapakah Paul Ricoeur, Pemikiran Hermeneutis Paul Ricoeur, Catatan Reflektif-Kritis dan Kesimpulan.

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